An unprecedented scientific collaboration on China and global health launched by The Lancet, Peking University Health Sciences Centre, and the China Medical Board, was launched in Beijing on Oct 20, 2008. This Series-focusing on health-system Reform in China - consists of 19 commissioned research papers that bring together the most recent scientific evidence on China's major health challenges, its health strategies, and China's health future. The Series was produced by a team of 63 scientists, with Chinese scientists constituting two-thirds of the authors, collaborating with an international team from 10 countries.